List of common nail diseases

Nail psoriasis

Nail psoriasis can cause nail denting or crumbling.


People living with psoriasis may develop symptoms. It occurs when psoriasis affects the skin of the nail bed or near the nail beds.


Potential symptoms include:

  • crumbling nails
  • pitting
  • changes in color to yellow or brown
  • a build-up of skin under the nails
  • blood under the nails
  • the nail separates from the bed

Brittle splitting nails

Brittle splitting nails, or onychoschizia, is a common issue that dermatologists see. The condition can cause brittle, soft, splitting, or thin nails.


Common causes of brittle nails are repeatedly wetting and drying the nails. Though less common, other causes may include iron deficiency or underlying illness.


The most common symptom is that the nails break easily. The American Osteopathic College of Dermatology state people can often tell if the cause is internal, as the condition affects both fingernails and toenails. If there is an external cause, symptoms will typically only affect the fingernails.


Onychogryphosis is a condition where the nail becomes overgrown and thick, often affecting the big toe. It can cause one portion of the nail to grow longer than the other part.


Potential causes of onychogryphosis include:

  • genetics
  • injury
  • circulation issues
  • psoriasis
  • ichthyosis


When a person has onychogryphosis, the nail grows very thick. In other cases, a portion of the nail may grow larger than the other part. The growth can resemble a ram’s horn, so people often refer to it as Ram’s horn nails.

Ingrown toenails

An ingrown toenail can cause pain and swelling, and in some cases, they can become infected.


According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, genetics may play a role in the development of ingrown toenails. Also, there are other potential causes, including:

  • not keeping nails trimmed
  • wearing tight socks or shoes
  • physical injury


Symptoms can include:

  • swelling and tenderness
  • redness
  • soreness
  • pus

Nail fungal infections

Nail fungal infections are a common condition that causes the nails to become thick, discolored, and easier to break. Nail fungus is more commonTrusted Source in the toes than fingers.


Several different types of molds and fungus can affect nails. They grow when a crack or break traps fungi between the nail and the nail bed.

Sweat, athlete’s foot, and salon manicures and pedicures can put people at higher risk of nail fungal infections.


Symptoms include:

  • thick nails
  • discolored nails that are brown, yellow or white
  • fragile or cracked nails

Fungus under the nails often is not painful.


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